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Alkaline Phosphatase reagent
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Inorganic Phosphorus Inorganic Phosphorus.......................................
 
Normal Range
: Children : 4.0 - 7.0 mg/dl
Adults : 2.5 - 5.0 mg/dl
An increase in serum inorganic phosphorous is found in,
  • Chronic nephritis
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hypervitaminosis 'D'
  • Bone fracture recovery
A decrease in serum inorganic phosphorous is seen in
  • Rickets
  • Osteomalacia
  • Steatorrhoea
  • Hyperparathyroidism
 
LDH LDH...............................................................
 
Being part of cardiac panel enzyme, quantitative determination of LDH is significant parameter at onset of coronary heart disease & equally useful in following progress status of patients.
Normal Range
: 114 - 240 IU/L at 37°C
 
LDL Cholesterol (LDL  C) LDL Cholesterol (LDL - C) .............................
 
LDL Cholesterol has become an important tool used to assess an individual risk of developing coronary artery disease, since a strong positive relationship between LDL - C concentration incidence of coronary artery disease was reported.
Normal Range
: 130 mg/dl
LDL - C act as a key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis & coronary artery disease.
 
LIPASE LIPASE ............................................................
 
Key enzyme to diagnose disease of pancreas such as acute & chronic pancreatitis & obstruction of pancreatic duct.
Normal Range
: up to 60 U/L>
 
LIPOPROTEIN (a) LIPOPROTEIN (a)...............................................
 
High lipoprotein (a) concentration represents an indicator of risk for cardio vascular diseases. Especially when, the serum LDL cholesterol or apo B are elevated.
Normal Range
: Up to 30 mg/dl
The quantification of Lp (a) is important for identification of individuals at risk for developing artherosclerosis
 
POTASSIUM POTASSIUM..........................................................
 
Normal Range
: up to 7 mmol/L
Increase in potassium (hyperkalemia) is seen in
  • Renal failure
  • Anuria
  • Severe oliguria
Decrease in potassium (hypokalemia) is seen in
  • Starvation
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Mal-absorption syndrome
 
SGOT SGOT..................................................................
 
Also known as AST (Aspartate amino transferase) Estimation of SGOT is useful in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
Normal Range
: 5 -50 units/L
Increase in SGOT levels is also noticed in conditions like,
  • Viral hepatitis
  • Drug injury
  • Carbon tetrachloride posioning
  • Acute biliary duct obstructions
 
SGPT SGPT.................................................................
 
Also known as ALT (Alanine Amino Transferase) Estimation of SGPT is useful in the diagnosis of liver disease , obstructive jaundice etc.
Normal Range
: 5 - 50 units/L
Elevated levels are found in case of
  • Hepatitis
  • Obstructive jaundice
  • Hepatic congestion
  • Metastatic carcinoma
Decreased levels may be seen in patients undergoing long term hemodialysis without vitamin B6 therapy.
 
Sodium Sodium...................................................................
 
Normal Range
: 135 - 155 mmol/L
Elevated sodium levels (hypernatremia) are associated with
  • Dehydration
  • Diabetes insipidus (loss of dilute urine)
  • In post renal conditions like enlarged prastate
Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) are associated with
  • Severe prolonged diarrhoea & vomiting
  • Salt losing nephritis
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Renal diseases
 
Triglyceride Triglyceride.............................................................
 
An important tool is hyper lipoproteinemia investigation
Normal Range : Male : 65 - 170 mg/dl
: Female : 45 - 145 mg/dl
Elevated levels are seen in
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Glycogen storage disease like Von Gierke’s disease.
  • Alcoholism
  • Nephrotic syndrome
 
Total Protein Total Protein...........................................................
 
Normal Range
: 6.0 - 8.5 gms/dl
High levels of total protein (hyperproteinemia) seen in
  • Dehydration
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Chronic liver diseases
  • Chronic infections
Low levels of total protein (hypoproteinemia) associated with
  • Renal disease
  • Malnutrition
  • Albuminuria
  • Terminal liver failure
 
Urea Urea.........................................................................
 
Normal Range
: 10 - 45 mg/dl
Increased urea levels can occur in
  • Liver disease
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Diabetes
  • In diseases which impair kidney function
  • With dietary changes
  • Raised protein breakdown
  • Urine retention
  • Shock
Decreased urea levels can occur in
  • Malnutrition
  • Hepatic failure
  • Pregnancy
 
Uric Acid Uric Acid...................................................................
 
Normal Range
: Male : 3.2 - 7.0 mg/dl
Female : 2.6 - 6.0 mg/dl
Elevated levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia) is seen in
  • Gout
  • Renal failure
  • Acute infectious diseases
  • Severe uremia
  • Toxemia of pregnancy
  • Leukemia
Low uric acid levels are observed in
  • Renal tubular syndrome
  • Heavy metal poisoning
   
 
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